Baas and Bleats

Continuing from the article written in the Arizona Republic, December 27, 1925, that I posted on an earlier, we find information on angora goats in Arizona. The paper stated that they were “Closely allied with the sheep industry of the state is that of goat raising.” This statement can more fully be understood when the facts are presented.

From other newspaper articles and family stories, I know that goats have been in Arizona for about as long as sheep. Sheep were brought in with Coronado in the 1500s. I don’t know if he brought goats.

A few differences between the raising of sheep and angora goats, the predominate breed,  were implicitly given.  The principal counties for raising the woolies, i.e., sheep, such as Coconino, Yavapai, Navajo and Apache to name just four, goats were raised almost exclusively in Cochise, Graham, Yavapai, Pinal and Mohave. While sheep were raised for both meat and their wool, goats are raised principally for their mohair. The head count for sheep was approximately 580,000 without counting any owned by the Native Americans and goats totaled about 160,000. The total investment value for goats was close to $800,000 while sheep had a value of $10 million. Unfortunately, the article did not state the annual pounds of mohair produced by these goats.

Both sheep and goat raisers, almost 90 percent, are members of the Arizona Wool Growers association, a corporation. Its primary purpose was to protect and foster the wool and mohair industries within the state. The officers of the association and board of directors given for the end of 1925 appeared to be those only owning sheep. The newspaper named: “A. A. Johns, Prescott, president; C. E. Burton, Ash Fork, first vice president; E. H. Duffield, McNary, second vice president; Aubrey Gist, Skull Valley, third vice president; Louise A. Hodges, Phoenix, acting secretary and treasurer. The board of directors are Colin Campbell, Ash Fork, chairman; Lou Charlebois, Wickenburg; H. B. Embach, Flagstaff; T. J. Hudspeth, Seligman; T. E. Pollock, Flagstaff; E. A. Sawyer, Winslow, and Williams Wilkins, Prescott.”

As the sheep make their trek from their winter green pastures to their summer cool air retreat, the office of the association follows. In the winter the office is in Phoenix and the summer it will move to Flagstaff. During the month of January, the winter meeting of the association takes place in Phoenix and the summer meeting is held in Flagstaff. The movement of the meeting to the location of where the sheep and goat men are located makes sense so the majority of them may attend the meetings.  

If anyone following this blog had relatives raising goats in Arizona, I sure would like to hear from you. I have some stories; I am always on the lookout for more.  A future blog will be on goats!  And that is today’s baas and bleats!

Not angora goats! Just cute goats.

Colin Campbell Part IV

Most of this information comes from an interview that Colin Campbell gave to the Kansas City Journal in May 1905. It was reported in the Winslow Mail May 27, 1905.  

Colin told the newspaper that he had been engaged in the sheep business in Arizona for over twenty years and he had taken his sheep multiple times east to Kansas City. During the interview, Campbell related this trip east with the six carloads of sheep, all wethers, that had been grass fed. It had taken three weeks to make the journey from Mayer to Kansas City. Mayer is considered to be the center of Arizona and has good grazing land.  He told of being caught between two floods, unloading his sheep five times and then still had to hold his sheep on the cars for over 40 hours without furnishing them with food or water. More about the journey has not been recorded in newspapers in Kansas City or Winslow which was disappointing as many questions were left unanswered such as what condition the wethers were in when they arrived in Kansas City as he does not say in the quote below.

“The range men are bound to make some money this year,” said Mr. Campbell, “and they certainly deserve it, as they have been having hard luck in the southwest country for several years. This change is due to the fact that we have been having plenty of rain all over the country. In making this trip to Kansas City I noticed that in all the years that I have traveled over that long stretch of country I never saw it when it looked as green and beautiful as it does now. In Arizona the ground has been soaked a half dozen times since the first of the present year, as it never was before. This not only insures feed this year but prepares the ground for grass next year. The sheepmen of that country are making good money in two ways, one on wool and the other in the fat that the sheep will put on which make them sell at better prices. I sold all my wool clip this spring at 20 cents a pound ($6.73 in 2022 dollars), which is the highest price that I ever received for my wool. And the lamb crop was a good one, and we are going to bring to market the fattest sheep we ever marketed. This year the bulk of the mutton sheep of Arizona will come east, owing to the heavy rains that fell all over California this spring. These rains enabled  them to fatten their own stock and so they will need fewer of our sheep.”

For reference, in 1897 Colin sold his wool clip for $.10 a pound ($3.57 today).  And now just waiting to find more stories of the Campbell’s.

A. & B. Schuster

A year or so ago, I spent some time in Holbrook, Arizona taking pictures of the old buildings and learning more about Holbrook’s part in the sheep business. I was curious about the A. & B. Schuster store but at the time was told they were not in the sheep business only sold mutton in the mercantile store in Holbrook. In a recent newspaper search from various newspapers and relooking at an old one, The Holbrook Argus, 1897, this information was found.

A & B. Schuster was the name the two brothers used for their mercantile store.  Adolph and Ben were natives of Westphalia, Germany.  They settled in Holbrook in 1885 after various business enterprises in New and Old Mexico. They had a lot of sheep at one point, 5,000 to be exact as they were assessed by the Board of Equalization of Apache County for $6,500 on them as reported by the St. Johns Herald, July 1895.  In October of 1895, they trailed the 5,000 sheep to Las (sic) Vegas, New Mexico. Their names appear on Bert Haskett’s list of sheep owners in Arizona for the time period 1891-1906 from Apache County.

As more research is completed, I am sure there will be more information about the Schusters.

unknown date
The Schuster Family. Unfortunately I was not told or maybe it is unknown which man is which. I’ll update if and when I find out.

Shearing and lambing Early 1898

From the January 30, 1898, Arizona Republic it is possible to gleam a great deal of information on the happenings in the sheep industry in Arizona. The newspaper began its article “The Sheep of Arizona Congregated in the Salt River Valley for Shearing” reflecting on how the democratic congress of the past four years had allowed the sheep industry “to go to ruin” under the Dingley tariff.  Many sheep men in not only Arizona but the United States were affected and many went out of business. In Arizona, it was estimated that 50 per cent of those engaged in raising sheep “went to the wall.”

But the article was really on the positive side as it stated that the sheep men were happy and their profits looked good from the bountiful harvest of the previous year.  “And to add to their fortune the elements have given them the most favorable conditions for ‘lambing’ they have had in a long time, ” the newspaper stated. George Scott told the newspaper that the average lambing for an outfit will be 80 percent. Mr. Scott, with one band of 1,700 ewes got 1,900 lambs.

The exact number of sheep that will be in the Salt River Valley for shearing was not known as a band contained from 1,500 to 2,500 and no outfit had the same number. From the number of bands listed below there were 58 in the valley and it had been estimated to be between 130,000 and 140,000 total sheep. Those sheepmen, where they were from and how many bands each had in the valley as reported in the newspaper were as follows:

Winslow – Cart & Noble, four bands

Flagstaff – Campbell & Francis, seven; Bill Campbell, three

Ash Fork – Joe Rice, three; Mr. Sterling, one; C. Hutchinson, two; J. Q. Adamson, four; Frank Evart, two; Mr. Renner, one

Show Low – Scott Bros., four; J. E. Porter, one; Clarence Morrow, one; Cole Campbell, four; William Morgan, three; Mr. Longmore, three; John Nelson, three; A.&B. Schuster, four; Lorenza Baca, one; Archie Cameron, one; Amos Bros., two; J. D. Houck, four.

A side note: Not all the above names are listed on Bert Haskett’s History of the Sheep Industry. There are more names on Haskett’s list than here but many of those on his list would have shipped their wool and lambs from a northern location. (Maybe that would be interesting to record here who Haskett’s has as sheep raisers.)

Charles Goddard had contracted with most of the sheep outfits to shear their sheep. He had set up one shearing camp and another camp had also been established. A wool buyer, A. Vandewert, from Boston was here to buy that wool. He estimated that in Arizona there was nearly 500,000 sheep. He had contracted for 2,500,000 pounds of wool from Arizona; a sheep averages eight and one-half pounds of wool. Another benefit to the wool raisers was that the prices for wool  were up this year compared to last with wool selling between 12 and 14 cents per pound this year compared to 7 ½ cents last year. Selling of sheep in 1897 went for $2.30 and $2.75 per head but it is estimated that they will sell from $3 to $3.50 in 1898.

Other changes that were seen in 1898 included new plans for shearing and handling the wool. The newspaper continued, “The Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix Railroad company has prepared plans of a plant for shearing and handling wool which will facilitate the work to a great extent. The company will erect a plant at Peoria immediately, which they will hand over to shearing contractors ten days after the material for construction of the plant arrives. It has been delayed by the tunnel accident on the Santa Fe, but is expected to arrive soon. The plant will contain forty shearing pens, a large dipping vault, and a warehouse for the storage of wool. Machine shears will be put in each pen, and the old shears will be relegated to a place among the crude implements of the old days. The machines will be the means of saving a greater portion of the wool to the owners, as they clip much closer and cleaner than it is possible to do with hand shears.” 

Shearing at the railroad yard also reduced the cost to the wool raisers as they did not have to haul their wool clip to the railroad for shipping to the eastern markets.

It is the goal to continue to find more information on 1898 wool and sheep prices and how the wool raisers felt when they were done shearing and shipping the lambs which would take place in May. The sheep raisers estimated that they would need 250 double decked railroad cars.

Colin Campbell, Part II

A little of the known history of Colin L. Campbell:

Colin was born in Nova Scotia in 1853. He was one of two brothers who arrived in Arizona in the late 1800s. An exact date has not been determined by this author but research shows it had to be the early 1890 since he married Amelia in Winslow, Arizona, June 22, 1891.  (On a family tree for Colin shows her name as Mary Amelia Emelia Daze and she was called Minnie Daze; she had been born in Canada also.)  How Colin or his wife came to Arizona, why they came and how they met has not been discovered, yet!

What is known about the Campbell’s comes from many newspaper articles across the territory of Arizona. In the Coconino Sun, March 24, 1892, three names of interest popped up: Colin Campbell, W. H. Campbell and Wm. Daze the three men were admitted to citizenship. (Was Wm. a brother or father to Colin’s wife?)   In May of 1892, Colin purchased controlling interest in the Santa Rita Land & Cattle Company. With citizenship he could own land.

Colin and Amelia Daze Campbell had a son, Eugene Colin, born in November 1893, in Winslow. The birth information comes from Arizona the Grand Canyon State, Volume I where a series of biographies can be found and the biography about Eugene Colin. In several different editions of the Coconino Sun other information has been found. In 1894, he attended the Wool Growers meeting. Over the next 20 years, Colin is mentioned many times in the territorial newspapers. For example: He had property across the state as he paid taxes for improvements to his lots in Winslow in 1896 (Coconino Sun) and in 1897, he put up 25 miles of telephone lines connecting both of his “large ranches with the city of Nogales.” (Holbrook Argus)

Many newspaper articles still need to be researched as a date for entering the sheep business is unknown. Dates for buying and selling of sheep have been found but most of these are in the early 1900s. The earliest evidence of sheep raising comes from the St. Johns Herald, 1897, stating he sold 2,200 head of sheep for shipment back east. This newspaper listed him as part of the firm Hart & Campbell of Winslow. The Weekly Journal-Miner, October 1899, stated that he had shipped 200 head of fine merino bucks and had “sold a large number of this class of bucks during the past few years” and the newspaper noted, “at a good price.”  

More forthcoming once the rest of the newspapers have been researched. 

Colin Campbell, Part I

As I was reading the minutes of the Executive Board meeting for the Arizona Wool Growers Association for 1927, the death of Colin Campbell was referenced in glowing terms. He was a director of the board and his death resulted in a vacancy.  Reviewing these documents help understand problems associated with the sheep industry in Arizona and the records give some details of members albeit through their deaths. It was not unusual to find a nice biographical sketch written by them or at least what had been stated in the obituary of a local newspaper.

The minutes for their October 15, 1927, special meeting read: “The Arizona Woolgrowers Association has sustained a great loss in the death of the Chairman of our Board of Directors, Colin Campbell, which occurred on October 2nd, 1927. He was also member for Arizona on the Executive Committee of the National Woolgrowers Association.” The special meeting was called to replace him on the board of directors. While not germane, H. C. Caveness, general manager of the Grand Canyon Sheep Company, was nominated to fill the vacancy.

The Wool Growers continued their accolades:

“It is superfluous to state that the name of Colin Campbell was known in every wool growing (sic) section of the country. His name was heard around the campfires of the herders, at the meetings of woolgrowers, at the National Ram sale, and at all places where wool and sheep were discussed.

With a matured judgement on all things connected with sheep raising and the marketing of wool, with a keen understanding of its problems, with wide reading and a retentive memory, his opinions were eagerly sought and the course of action taken by him was generally followed.

He was a pioneer of pioneers in all matters relating to grazing and the preservation of our ranges, in the improvement of breeds and the production of high grade rams.

The esteem in which he was held was shown at his funeral in Flagstaff on October 4, 1927. All classes of the community were present and in fact it was a gathering of the people of Northern Arizona who met to give testimony to his wonderful acquaintance and his sterling worth.

The following editorial from the Prescott Journal Miner, October 4, 1927, is quoted, as representing the feeling of this Board of Directors: 

            ‘Not only Yavapai county but the whole state will feel the loss of Colin Campbell, whom death claimed at Ash Fork, Sunday. Of all the livestock men of this southwest, he was the peer, a pioneer who dared in a country not yet settled, down to the present state of things.

            Mr. Campbell was of a family who carved empires out of the wilderness, a sturdy stock that populated the far portions of the earth at times when life was not so easy as it is now. He was a brother of the redoubtable industrialist and political leader, Hon. Hugh Campbell, who for years led the sheep men of Arizona as President of their association and one of their outstanding members. Of no less worth has been the contribution of Colin Campbell to the work of making productive a land scarcely attractive to the farmer, the town builder or the miner.

            We know of no man who could gather so many friends about him. He was one of Arizona’s finest.’”

Colin Campbell distinguished himself in the sheep industry in the short time he lived in the state (1890?-1927). Next blog will look at his life in more detail.

The Rest of 1869.

Finishing out the year 1869 as one story had been written about (See April 29, How to Raise a Shepherd Dog) a few more pieces of information have been found about a few of the men engaged in sheep raising with Arizona.

In mid-February, Jim Baker had his sheep at Camp Willows but had not trekked them to the Prescott area due to bad weather conditions. By May he has his sheep in Chino Valley and was ready to start to New Mexico with Antonio V. Wanners to purchase sheep. Campbell and Buffum were reported to have sheared up to 1,600 pounds of fair quality wool. The newspaper stated that “We are glad that a commencement has been made in the business, and hope others will engage in it.” Mr. Campbell told the newspaper that sheep were doing extremely well in this country adding to the hopes of the men of the newspaper that others would soon engage in sheep raising.

The only other item for this year was for a proposal to be submitted for furnishing the military posts in the Territory with beef and mutton for the contract year, 1870.  The military stated that they would need approximately 3,000 cattle and 1,000 sheep.

We have three sheepmen who came early into Arizona and at least two, Campbell and Baker, were sheepmen into the early 1900s. It will be interesting to track them and their sheep through the rest of the 1800s. With more newspapers digitized, more early sheep history may come to light, and we may learn what happen to Buffum. But for now, this is the news for 1869.

Rovey’s Sheep

Donkeys on the Trail

It has been two years since the Auza’s have been able to trail their sheep for three weeks to the area near Williams. It has been extremely dry the past two years. It was always great fun to watch the herders move the sheep the day that they went through the underpass on State Route 260 near Cottonwood. My husband and I would travel from the Buckeye area the day before to catch the action of the herders, dogs, donkeys and sheep. The sheep once they had moved through the underpass on State Route 260 would head toward the river. Today I concentrate on the donkeys who carried the camp equipment, cooking utensils, personal items of the herders, and food for the herders as well as the guardian dogs.

It has been a long morning. Let me sleep!
Just chilling and grazing before the afternoon trek under the underpass.
One of the donkeys who wanted his picture taken!
Climbing the steep hill from the underpass.
On the north side of the road after the underpass.
Notice the donkeys go around the hill!

Early 1866/67 Journals in Arizona

Just a few tidbits of information today as there has not been a great deal about sheep found in the newspapers of the 1866 or 1867. From a journey taken in 1853 that was reported in the 1866 newspaper Arizona was depicted as an ideal sheep raising area.  The two-page newspaper story in the Arizona Miner, Fort Whipple, was taken from a San Francisco newspaper of a journey in 1853 by Mr. Aubry who across Arizona from New Mexico to California via the southern route of the Gila River with sheep and wagons. Aubry reported that “a large portion of the trail over which I passed-say some 250 miles west from the Rio Grande-is, for the most part, admirably adapted to farming and stock raising.” He was planning on doing another trip with sheep in 1854. Whether he undertook that trip, no information has been found at this time. While there was other information about Arizona, I only was interested in the sheep crossing our state. 

Again in 1867, a journey from San Francisco to Prescott was included in the Arizona Miner, Fort Whipple as it was taken from the Examiner, most likely San Francisco but not given the newspaper’s origin. The paragraph of interest stated, “It is quite out of the question to describe in a single letter, all the advantages that Central Arizona possesses, or to enumerate the inducements it offers to permanent settlers. As a stock-raising district, no part of the Pacific (sic) to the northward can even bear comparison. Numerous grasses, of the most luxuriant growth and nutritious description, cover the country to the very summit of the mountains. For sheep, no place in the world could surpass, if equal it. As to farming, if wild grain is any criterion, this is surely the place to cultivate; for I have seen hundreds of acres of wild rye and oats at a glance, that made me instinctively look for a farmhouse (sic). Better crops I never saw anywhere, and all to be had for the gathering from the bountiful hand of nature …. The last paragraph also states that with all the wild grapes growing here the author predicted that Arizona would become a great vine producer.” 

While the last part of the information is not germane, I thought it was interesting especially with Arizona having a wine producing area in the central part of the state as well as the southern.

The last piece of information to report about 1867 was what a person or family were allowed to retain in the case of a bankruptcy.  Quoting from the Arizona Miner, Fort Whipple, again, “keep Household furniture, and other necessary articles, in value not exceeding $500; and in addition for those having a wife and children, 1 cow, 10 sheep, 2 hogs, 25 bushels of charcoal, 2 tons stone coal, 200 pounds of fat, 5 bushels of potatoes, 200 pounds of wheat flour, 2 cords of wood, 2 tons of hay, 10 bushels of turnips, 10 bushels of corn, or meal made therefrom, 10 bushels of rye, or the flour made therefrom, 20 pounds of wool, 20 pounds of flax, 1 sewing machine, 1 (a blurred word) in church and the wearing apparel of the whole family. 

Lastly, I also stopped by Rovey Dairy today to get lamb burger and sheep cheese. Here is just one of the pictures from my visit:

Lambs at Rovey Dairy in Glendale, Arizona.